Some history

The following was built to reflect introduction of ATMs in US and europe between 1982 and 1993. As ATM was relatively new technology, it had various vulnerabilities and backdoors. A lot of customers suffered from fraud, bank‘s employee‘s mistakes and technology failures, also known as “phantom withdrawals”. Many customers claims concerning withdrawals were not satisfied by bank. Consequently it set a legal precedent.

  • US approach. In some countries, including the USA, if a customer disputed a transaction, the bank had the burden of proof that the customer was mistaken or lying; this gave the banks a motive to protect their systems properly.
  • European approach. Contrary in several European countries (including Britain, Norway and the Netherlands), the customer had the burden of proof: the bank was right unless the customer could prove it wrong – an almost impossible task.

Key components of our simulation

Responsive image
Responsive image
Responsive image
  • Bank Management. They determine, what kind of security approach bank will implement.
  • Bank`s ATM network. Bank ATMs, that containing vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities can be exploited to commit fraud (dishonest acquisition of money).
  • Customers People, who posses account in this Bank. Can commit fraud by challenging the bank that money were taken from their account, while they made a withdrawal themselves.
  • Crooks People, who does not posses account in this Bank. Can make fraud by stealing money from bank customers.

Your role

You are the manager of bank, who has to decide, whether bank will follow the strategy of European banks or US banks.

How to play

The control flow of the game is rather simple:
  1. Choose desired strategy on  Control Panel .
  2. Observe consequence of your decision on the graph below.
  3. Select another strategy.
  4. Compare two outcomes and make conclusions.
  5. Click "Reset" if you would like to run simulation again.


Select preferred strategy

Total fraud

Total fraud rate

Pressure to improve ATM security

Vulnerabilities active

Vulnerability fixing

Vulnerabilities dormant

Vulnerabilities removal

Stock and flow model